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The teletype circuits were cut in 1988 after several years of testing and use proved the fax links to be reliable.

The Soviets transferred the hotline link to the newer, geostationary Gorizont-class satellites of the Stationar system.

Specifically, they agreed to notify each other immediately in the event of an accidental, unauthorized or unexplained incident involving a nuclear weapon that could increase the risk of nuclear war.

Two new satellite communication lines supplemented the terrestrial circuits using two US Intelsat satellites, and two Soviet Molniya II satellites.

This arrangement lasted from 1971 to 1978; it made the radio link via Tangier redundant.

It has alienated proven allies by opening a 'hot line' first with a sworn enemy rather than with a proven friend, and in general pursued a risky path such as it began at Munich a quarter century ago." The first generation of the hotline used two full-time duplex telegraph circuits. TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable carried messages from Washington to London.In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin personally badgered 1960 presidential candidates John F. Objections from others in the State Department, the U. During the standoff, official diplomatic messages typically took six hours to deliver; unofficial channels, such as via television network correspondents, had to be used too as they were quicker.Kennedy and Richard Nixon, and buttonholed the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev during a U. During the crisis, the United States took nearly twelve hours to receive and decode Nikita Khrushchev's 3,000-word initial settlement message – a dangerously long time. White House advisers thought faster communications could have averted the crisis, and resolved it quicker.By the time Washington had drafted a reply, a tougher message from Moscow had been received, demanding that U. The two countries signed the Hot Line Agreement in June 1963 - the first time they formally took action to cut the risk of starting a nuclear war unintentionally.The "hotline", as it would come to be known, was established after the signing of a "Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Line" on June 20, 1963, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States. test messages have included excerpts of William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, encyclopedias, and a first-aid manual; Soviet tests included passages from the works of Anton Chekhov.

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Washington sent Moscow the text: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890".